We know that different sets of organs perform the various functions for smooth functioning of a living organism. A cell could also be analogically compared to a brick. Bricks are assembled to create a building. Similarly, cells are assembled to create the body of each organism.

Cells are referred to as the structural and practical units of a living organisms (plant cells in plants and animal cells in animals). Animal cells are defined as a type of eukaryotic cell that lacks a cell wall and has a true, membrane-bound nucleus along with other cellular organelles. Let us now look into the components of an animal cell and its diagrammatic representation.

Structure of an animal cell

Cell Membrane
Cell membrane is the thin layer of super-molecule (protein) and fat that surrounds the cell. The cell wall is permeable, permitting some substances to pass into the cell and allows interference with others.

Centrosome is a small body settled close to the nucleus – it has a dense centre and divergent tubules. The centrosomes are present wherever microtubules are created. In the process of mitosis, the cytoplasm divides. The 2 centrosomes move to opposite sides of the dividing cell.

The Animal Cell

The jelly-like material outside the organelle within which the organelles are settled is known as cytoplasm.

Golgi apparatus
A layered, sac-like cell organ that appears sort of a stack of pancakes and is found close to the nucleus. is known as Golgi apparatus. It produces the membranes that surround the lysosomes. The Golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for export” from the cell.

Round organelles encircled by a membrane and containing organic process enzymes is known as lysosome. This is often wherever the digestion of cell nutrients takes place.

Mitochondrion is a spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane is. The inner membrane is enfolded over and over, forming a series of projections (called cristae). The chondriosome converts the energy kept in aldohexose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the cell.


Spherical body containing several organelles, as well as the nucleoli is known as the nucleus. The nucleus controls several of the functions of the cell (by dominant super molecule synthesis) and contains polymer (in chromosomes). The nucleus is encircled by the nuclear membrane.

Structure of a nucleus

Nuclear membrane

The membrane which surrounds the nucleus is the nuclear membrane

Nucleolus is the cell organ among the nucleus is wherever ribosomal ribonucleic acid is created. Some cells have over one nucleolus.

Small organelles composed of RNA-rich protoplasm granules that are sites of protein synthesis are called the ribosomes.

Endoplasmic reticulum

A vast system of interconnected, membranous, enfolded and convoluted sacks that are settled
within the cell’s protoplasm is known as the endoplasmic reticulum. The ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane.

Endoplasmic reticulum

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER)
Rough ER is roofed with ribosomes that provides it a rough look. Rough ER transports materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks referred to as cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane).

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth ER)
Smooth ER transports materials through the cell. It contains enzymes, produces and digests lipids (fats) and membrane proteins. Smooth ER helps in the movement of the newly-made proteins and lipids to the Golgi body, lysosomes, and membranes.

Fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded cavities within a cell are called the vacuoles. The bodily cavity fills with food being digestible and waste that’s on its solution of the cell.

However, as animals differ the cells they are made of also differ. In fact, the cells in each organ system differ and the animals need to adapt to a more active and non-sedentary lifestyle. Furthermore, animals need to acquire their own nutrition, and hence, they do not possess any of the specialised cell organelles such as chloroplasts ,etc.

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