Sugar Intolerance-All you need to know about Diabetes
Man has invented machines to ease his work. Over the years a lot of machines have been invented to ease a lot of tasks that require heavy work. The industrial revolution was the reason for the development of machines, which then skyrocketed over the years. We now live in a world where passing through one day without these machines seems impossible!
There are a lot of cons for the development of machines. The most prominent and vulnerable one is health hazards. A new set of disorders have started to develop on par with the development of machines. These are known as lifestyle disorders. Some of the popular ones are hypertension, diabetes, stress, obesity, etc. One or the other way, lifestyle disorders are interconnected. This article focuses on one such disorder that is ruling the world today, diabetes.
Around 430 million people are suffering from diabetes, with 1 in 10 having diabetes and 1 in 35 having prediabetes. Diabetes is a medical condition that refers to an increase in blood glucose levels. There are two types of diabetes namely diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. The types vary based on the target organ and the state of urine.
Diabetes mellitus is due to the decreased function of the pancreas, not being able to produce sufficient insulin. As a result, the concentration of glucose increases, and the urine becomes concentrated as an attempt taken by the body to remove the excess glucose. On the other hand, the diabetes insipidus is due to the increased workload of the kidneys and as a result, the urine becomes diluted.
Our primary focus is on diabetes mellitus. In this disease, the increase in glucose level is due to the decrease in insulin level. Insulin, a hormone secreted by the beta islets of the pancreas, works by converting the excess glucose into glycogen, known as the energy storage for animals. In this way, glucose levels get lowered. On the contrary, glucagon, the hormone secreted by the alpha islets, converts the glycogen into glucose, hence elevating glucose levels. These two hormones work in par to maintain the glucose levels in equilibrium and this is a classic example for homeostasis (reactions occurring to keep the body in a state of equilibrium).
Diabetes mellitus can be categorized into type 1 and 2 each differing based on the levels of insulin. Type-1 diabetes is also known as juvenile type diabetes. This is characterized by an absolute deficiency of insulin. This means that they don’t have insulin at all and hence their glucose levels are always high. Around 10% of the world’s population is affected by this disease. The sad part is that the peculiar cause for this dreadful condition remains unknown. However, the possible cause is an autoimmune attack on the pancreas which destroys it, hence eliminating the ability of the pancreas to produce them.
The second type is characterized by the relative deficiency of insulin. This means that they have some amount of insulin but that is not sufficient enough to regulate glucose. The most probable cause for this is obesity. Obesity results in the accumulation of fat and this upregulates chemical molecules called cytokines. These molecules are antagonists to insulin and an increase in their concentration dominates them over insulin. So there is a reduction in insulin and an elevation in glucose levels.
It is important to understand that in type-1 there is no insulin due to the destruction of the pancreas, whereas there is less amount of insulin in type-2 due to the presence of insulin-antagonists. Based on this, we can say that type-1 is non-insulin-dependent and irreversible whereas type-2 is insulin-dependent and reversible.
Some of the key symptoms seen in both types include the following:-
• Blurry vision
• Increased urination
• Increased hunger
• More time to heal from injuries etc.
Since type-1 diabetes patients have no insulin, they have to be provided externally in the form of syringes and tablets. Also, they have to follow food restrictions strictly since each meal can affect their sugar levels tremendously.
Type-2 is less dangerous when compared to type-1. Severe cases of type-2 are advised to consume insulin supplements. Moderate diet restrictions and exercise to burn off the fat is what are most required for these people.
In fact, a good diet containing all tastes and all the nutrients in a balanced proportion and a healthy lifestyle incorporating adequate physical activity can avoid the risk of getting around 70-80% of diseases currently dominating.
Change the lifestyle to overcome the lifestyle disorders
WISHING FOR YOUR BETTER HEALTH!!
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The art of medicine consists in amusing the patient while the nature cures the illness...
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