Nervous system – The Master Mind of Human Body
Hope you guys would know the nervous system since it plays a vital role in the human body. The nervous system is a highly complex part of the human organ system. It controls, regulates, and acts as the communication system in the body. It coordinates the actions and the sensory information by transmitting appropriate signals. It is the center of all activity as it controls the movements, thoughts, and automatic responses to things. The nervous system originates from the brain. It also controls other processes such as digestion, breathing, etc., Thus it is concluded that the nervous system affects every aspect of life. To put it in a nutshell, the brain is the mastermind of the human.
Nervous system is the BODY’S COMMAND CENTER.
The nervous system contains components such as the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ganglia. A network of nerves sends electrical signals to and from the various parts of the body. The nervous system consists of two main parts: The Peripheral nervous system and the Central nervous system. The peripheral nervous system is classified into the Autonomic nervous system, Somatic nervous system, and Enteric nervous system. The brain and spinal cord make up the CNS and a group of nerves outside the CNS make up the PNS. The autonomic nervous system is classified into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
The parasympathetic nervous system restores the body to a calm and composed state while the sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for flight/fight response. The Sympathetic nervous system is also known as the “involuntary nervous system” tending to increases body parameters. The Parasympathetic nervous system is known as the “rest and digest system” since it conserves the body’s natural activity.
Thus autonomic nervous is named so because it works autonomously. The Somatic nervous system is associated with the voluntary control of body movements with the help of the skeletal muscles. It consists of sensory(afferent) and motor(efferent) nerves. The Enteric nervous system one of the divisions of PNS governs the function of the gastrointestinal tract. It is also known as the “intrinsic nervous system”.
The nervous system performs various functions: It regulates and maintains homeostasis together with the multiple systems in the human body. It performs the programming of spinal cord reflexes. It helps in memory, learning, and also takes part in voluntary movement control. It stimulates the muscles and causes them to contract. The CNS integrates information and control centers while PNS act as the communication line between the CNS and the rest parts of the body.
Nerves are found only in PNS while neurons are found in both PNS and CNS.
The basic structural and functional unit of the nervous system is the neuron. Neurons are otherwise called nerve cells. A large group/bundle of axons or several different types of neurons form the nerves and in turn, all the nerves from the nervous system. Neurons are classified as sensory, motor, and interneurons. Nerves are classified as efferent, afferent, and mixed nerves. Neurons are the cells that transmit information from one nerve cell to other nerve cells, muscles, or gland cells. Neurons consist of three major parts as follows: cell body, dendrites, and axon.
The cell body, also called soma, contains the nucleus and other cell organelles. Dendrites are antennae of the neuron and are extended from the cell body. Axon is the long extension of the cell body with myelin sheath as the outer layer. Myelin sheath is a fatty material that covers insulates, protects the nerves, and also increases the propagation speed. Myelin is formed by two types of glial cells: Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes. Axon is the major branching fiber and transmits impulses. Axon end in synaptic terminals which are noted by the swellings called synaptic knobs. Gaps in the myelin sheath are called Nodes of Ranvier.
7 trillion nerves are found in the human body.
Neurons are classified into different types based on the number of processes extending from the cell body. They are unipolar, bipolar, multipolar and pseudo unipolar neurons. Unipolar neurons have one axon. Bipolar neurons have one axon and one dendrite extending from the cell body towards opposite poles. Multipolar neurons have multiple dendrites and one axon. Pseudo unipolar neuron has a single structure extended from the cell body and later on it divides into two branches.
Nerves are actual projection of neurons.
Thus it is observed that the nervous system is really a vast one to study. You might get a lot of information if you go in-depth about each and every topic. I hope you would have got a brief idea about the nervous system and neurons after reading this.
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