Even after reading the title, it’s somewhat difficult to decipher right? But when I say the acronym ENT it is much easier to recall and pronounce. This sounds familiar, right? OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY is nothing but the study of the diseases of the ear, nose, and throat. The etymology for this word is from the Greek words otos (ear), rhino (nose), laryngo (windpipe), and logos (science). So, an otorhinolaryngologist/ENT surgeon is a medical professional/physician who treats diseases in the ear, nose, throat, and as well as the structures of the neck and face. ENT surgeon treats people of all ages ranging from infant to the elderly. Medical and surgical care is provided for all irrespective of ages.

ENT doctor during the consult.

This field is one of the most competitive specialties in medicine. This field has undergone dramatic development over the past 30 years. Patients seek treatment for the common functional diseases that affect the senses and activities of eating, drinking, speaking, breathing, swallowing, and hearing. In addition, ENT surgery encompasses the surgical management, reconstruction of cancers, benign tumors of the head and neck, and plastic surgery of the face and neck. There is a wide range of conditions that can affect the patients.


 Otosclerosis is the loss of hearing due to damages in the middle ear. Otitis media with effusion is a condition in which the middle ear becomes blocked with fluid. This condition is commonly known as glue ear and is common for children between 6 months and 3 years. It also includes balance disorders, age-related hearing loss, tinnitus, nerve pain, eustachian tube dysfunction, dizziness and vertigo, perforated eardrum, protruding ears, infections, congenital disorders of the outer and inner ear, cholesteatoma, etc.,

cross-section of the ear


 Nasal obstructions, injuries, polyps, tumors of the nose, disorders affecting the sense of smell, allergies, rhinitis, empty nose syndrome, and sinus infection are some of the common medical conditions related to the nose.


Upper esophageal diseases, swallowing problems, hoarseness, laryngitis, tonsilitis, breathing problems in the upper airways, adenoid problems, snoring, vocal cord nodules, polyps, and obstructive sleep apnea (block in upper respiratory pathway during sleep) are some of the medical conditions related to the throat. The CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) therapy is one of the treatment methods for this disease.

Women with CPAP for sleep apnoea.


Benign and malignant tumors and deformities, cancer in the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, salivary glands, and skull base, etc., Trauma, thyroid, parathyroid problems, and also skin cancer are some prominent problems. The surgeons treat allergies using medication and immunotherapy, performing surgery on the face, neck, or ear, removing and treating tumors in all the specified areas, managing disorders and infections.

Anatomical representation of head and neck.

The latest medical treatment methods are mostly invasive yet provide less scarring and shorter recovery periods puts ENT at the top of all medical sciences. The surgeons can also correct the appearance of the nose by rhinoplasty surgery. Excess skin and fat around the upper and lower eyelids can be removed by Blepharoplasty. ENT has possibly the widest range of operations from major head & neck procedures with its complexity ranging from micro corrections in the ear to facial reconstructions.

Some diseases/disorders need treatment at a young age. So, a general check-up is essential and must be in practice for the people. If any problem is found out, then it can be treated at the early stage with shorter/no effects.

Happy reading!!!

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