Hepatitis in simple terms means the liver inflammation, which is commonly caused by virus. It can alsobe caused by drugs/alcohol, chemicals, autoimmune disease etc.,. It can be an acute infection or chronic infection. It is acute when it lasts less than six months and is chronic when it persists longer.

  • Acute hepatitis can be self limiting and can lead to acute liver failure.
  • Chronic hepatitis have no symptoms, and may progress over time to fibrosis and cirrhosis.


  1. Virus enter into blood stream and spread in the liver.
  2. They infect the hepatocytes and multiply.
  3. They change the antigen structure on the virus site.
  4. The body begins to use self mediated immune response attempting to damage the hepatocytes.

5 main types of viral hepatitis

  1. Hepatitis A [HAV] – Found in the feces of infected people
  2. Hepatitis B [HBV] – Spreads through infected blood fluids
  3. Hepatitis C [HCV] – Most serious type and spread through blood
  4. Hepatitis D [HDV] – Can only be contracted if you are having HBV
  5. Hepatitis E [HEV] – Transmitted via food or water


  • Symptoms take about 2-3 weeks to show up
  • No specific treatment
  • Vaccine is available.
  • Rarely it is fatal.
  • Children are most commonly affected here


  • Symptoms take about 2.5 months to show up.
  • 90% recovery within 6 months.
  • Vaccine is available.
  • Any age people can get affected by this HBV


  • Symptoms take about 2-6 months to show up.
  • 80% of people have no symptoms
  • No vaccine.
  • Treated with antiviral drugs.
  • Adults are more prone to this


  • Symptoms take about 2.5 months to show up.
  • There are no cures. Prevention is the only method.
  • No vaccine
  • Any age people can get affected.


  • Symptoms take about 40 adsy to show up.
  • Here also prevention is the only weapon.
  • No vaccine available.
  • Young adults are affected.

The following table is the comparative analysis of A, B and C types of hepatitis.

AttributeHepatitis AHepatitis BHepatitis C
Incubation time15-50 days60-150 days14-182 days
Route of transmissionfecal-oralpercutaneous mucosal body fluids percutaneous mucous
Causes of transmissionclose contact
sexual contact
contaminated food/water
infected mother, sexual contact
syringe, needle sharing
needle syringe drug sharing
infected mother tattoo
acute infection in
younger people
acute infection in
older people
70%Very less10-20%
acute to chronic
NoInfant= 90%
1-5 yrs= 25-50%
adults= 5%
test for acuteIgM anti HAVHbsAg, IgM HbCNo
test for chronicNoHbsAg, Total HbCanti HCV
severitynormal recovery
death and complication
are rare
recover mostly
15-25% cancer cirrhosis
liver failure
5-25% cirrhosis
1-4% carcinoma
treatment for acutesupportiveno medication
supportive methods
IDSA drug
treatment for chronicnoantiviral drugsHCV genotyping
vaccinationall children
people at risk region
sexual contact
liver disease
all children
drug use history
sexual contact
liver problems
hemodialysis patients

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